Lambda Expression in Java - Part 2

Lambda Expression in Java - Part 2

In the previous article, we learned about lambda expression, why and when to use them, how to write lambda expressions, functional interfaces, and the difference between lambda expression and inner classes.

In this article, we will understand available functional interfaces and closures.

1. Why create Functional Interfaces?

In the previous article, we have seen that to make use of lambda expression we need Functional Interfaces.
Let's consider the below example to understand more
We have created a class Player which has a name, age, and the category as instance variables.

class Player{
    String name;
    int age;
    String category;

    public Player(String name, int age, String category) { = name;
        this.age = age;
        this.category = category;

    public String getName() {
        return name;

    public void setName(String name) { = name;

    public int getAge() {
        return age;

    public void setAge(int age) {
        this.age = age;

    public String getCategory() {
        return category;

    public void setCategory(String category) {
        this.category = category;

Below is the Main class

import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.List;

public class Main{
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        List<Player> players = Arrays.asList(
                new Player("Dhoni",39,"Wicket Keeper"),
                new Player("Kohli",33,"Batter"),
                new Player("Bumrah",27,"Bowler"),
                new Player("Rohit",32,"Batter"),
                new Player("Jadeja",31,"All-rounder"),
                new Player("Hardik",26,"All-rounder")

        System.out.println("Print All the batters from the list");
        printOnCondition(players, p->p.getCategory().equals("Batter"),p->System.out.println(p.getName()));

        System.out.println("\nPrint All the players with category whose age less than 30");
        printOnCondition(players,p->p.getAge()<30,p->System.out.println(p.getName()+ "->"+p.getCategory()));

    private static void printOnCondition(List<Player> players, Condition condition, Perform perform) {
        for(Player player : players){

interface Condition{
    boolean test(Player p);
interface Perform{
    void action(Player p);

  1. We have created a List of Players
  2. Also there are 2 functional interfaces
    ->Condition - has an abstract method test that takes in a Player and returns boolean.
    ->Perform - has an abstract method action that takes in a Player and does some action and returns nothing
  3. We also have a method printOnCondition which takes a list of players, an instance of condition, and an instance of Perform.
    It calls the test() method of the Condition interface if that returns true it acts by calling the action() method of the Perform interface.

Whenever we call this method, we pass the lambda expression for the 2nd and 3rd parameters.
For eg;-

System.out.println("Print All the batters from the list");

Here in the second parameter, we have passed the lambda expression which returns true only if the player is a 'Batter'.
In the third parameter, we have passed the lambda expression for the action() method of the Perform interface, which will just print the name of the player.

So, the flow will be,

  • whenever the above method call happens, for loop will start on the list of players and for each player
  • their category will be checked if it is batter
  • then the action method of the perform interface will be called which will just print the name of the player(as we have passed this as lambda expression).

Similarly, you can also refer to the example where we are printing names and categories of players whose age is less than 30 yrs.

Here, creating functional interfaces is overhead, we have 2 functional interfaces Condition and Perform their name could be anything, we just need an abstract method that takes and inputs and returns boolean(eg:- test method) and an abstract method that takes in input and returns nothing(eg:- action method) respectively.
So, for this in Java 8 there are already many out-of-the-box interfaces available which we can use in most cases.

For example, we have an interface Predicate it is a generic interface and has an abstract method test(T t), which takes in input parameter and returns boolean

image.png So, we can use this Predicate interface in place of our created Condition interface.

Similarly, for our Perform interface, we need a method that takes an input and returns nothing. We can use the already available Consumer interface, which has a similar method accept(T t).


So, now let's update the above printOnCondition method, there will not be any change in the main() method.

private static void printOnCondition(List<Player> players, Predicate<Player> predicate, Consumer<Player> consumer) {
        for(Player player : players){

There are many such interfaces you can have a look at here which can directly be used as per requirement.

2. Closures

To understand closures, let us consider the below example.

public class ClosureExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        int a = 10;
        int b =20;
        doProcess(a, i->System.out.println(i+b));
    static void doProcess(int n,Perform p){

interface Perform{
    void action(int n);

//OUTPUT -> 30

Here, we have created 2 variables 'a' and 'b', when we call doProcess() method we pass a lambda expression in that we have used (i+b).
If we take a note this lambda expression will be used in the doProcess() method scope, but over there we don't have 'b'.
So how are we getting the value 30?
This variable 'b' is not in the scope of the execution of lambda expression, compiler freezes the value of 'b' from the main method and passes the value(not the variable) along with the lambda expression so that whenever the expression executes, the compiler finds the value of b.
Also, since 'b' is used at the time of execution of lambda execution, the compiler trusts us that we won't change the value of 'b'.
So, we can say variable 'b' is effectively final as adding the final keyword is not mandatory.
If we try to change the value of 'b', compiles will throw an error.

doProcess(a, i->{
            b=40 ;
Error - java: local variables referenced from a lambda expression must be final or effectively final

3. Conclusion

So in part 1, we got familiar with lambda expressions and in this part, we understood some more concepts.
Thanks for reading this article
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